John Goldsby's Jazz Concepts: Leroy Vinnegar & His Deep Beat

October 1, 2014

WHAT ARE THE OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR RECORDING A HIT JAZZ–POP crossover album? A well-rehearsed band, good recording conditions, and new material? The 1969 live album Swiss Movement fulfilled none of those requirements, yet it became a million-selling crossover record. Anchored by Leroy Vinnegar’s punchy, funky upright groove, pianist/ vocalist Les McCann and saxophonist Eddie Harris delivered an incredibly powerful set that captured the politically charged spirit and musical developments that characterized the era. Swiss Movement was a seminal recording in the world of jam-band-style funky jazz.

Vinnegar was known as a consummate walking bassist, yet during his tenure with the Les McCann group in the ’60s, many of the grooves were straight-eighth R&B. On Swiss Movement, Vinnegar and drummer Donald Dean often play somewhere between straight and swing eighths, with Dean tending toward straight eighths, and Vinnegar belying his bop roots with the occasional implied triplet feeling. Regardless of the mathematical relationship between the bass and drums, the result was magical. In the liner notes to the album, Mike Hennesey wrote, “From the very first note this quixotic quintet played, an unrelenting groove was established— and it never let up.”

The quintet included the Les McCann Trio, plus soloists Harris and trumpeter Benny Bailey. McCann’s trio and Harris’ group had both performed at the Montreux Jazz Festival, and Bailey was a U.S. expat living in Switzerland at the time. Producer Joel Dorn, in a moment of brilliance, paired the McCann Trio with Harris and Bailey for a jam-session concert on the festival’s last day. They had never played together before; there was no rehearsal, and there were no charts. Luckily for us, the mics were on, video cameras were rolling, and the performance was released that year on the album Swiss Movement.

“Compared to What” was the breakout hit single and ranks among the great jazz protest songs, in the political tradition of Charles Mingus and Charlie Haden. With McCann singing lyrics like “The president, he’s got his war; folks don’t know just what it’s for,” the song offered a danceable critique of Richard Nixon and the Vietnam war.

For the intro, McCann sets up an Eb minor vamp and is quickly joined by Vinnegar (Ex. 1). McCann plays modally while sliding through several key centers, eventually landing on an F7. In Ex. 2 the band finds its mojo and is jamming on the F7. Vinnegar uses a bass line similar to the intro, but in a two-bar phrase. The intro bass line (Ex. 1) is a one-bar repeated groove, whereas the F7 bass line (Ex. 2) is a two-bar repeated line that drops down to the open A, and then pushes back up the scale using offbeats.

Example 3 adds the chromatic approach note B to the line. This slight variation gives even more drive to Vinnegar’s groove. It’s amazing to hear eight minutes of ecstatic groovelation, underpinned by only a few simple variations. It’s what Vinnegar is known for: rhythmic precision, simplicity, and the ability to make any band feel great.

Leroy Vinnegar was born in Indianapolis in 1928. His first major gig was in the house band at the Bee Hive in Chicago. He relocated to L.A. in 1954 and quickly became a first-call player because of his simple, swinging walking style. He performed with everyone from Shelly Manne [My Fair Lady, Contemporary, 1956] to the Doors [Waiting for the Sun, Asylum/Elektra, 1968]. In addition to countless dates with top players of the West Coast jazz scene, Vinnegar recorded a couple of solo albums as a bandleader, including Leroy Walks! [Contemporary, 1957] and Leroy Walks Again!! [Contemporary, 1962]. Vinnegar moved to Portland in 1986, and was a mainstay on the local scene there until his death in 1999.

On all of his recordings, Vinnegar distinguishes himself for his unselfish, supportive rhythm-section style, but his playing on the Swiss Movement album is a bass gem in the bin of classic live albums. Vinnegar’s opportune appearance at the 1969 Montreux Jazz Festival with the thrown-together McCann–Harris quintet remains a high point in the history of recorded jazz. This type of driving, funky, danceable jazz set the stage for contemporary bands like the Bad Plus, Rudder, and Medeski Martin & Wood. (Historical note: The Montreux Casino, where Swiss Movement was recorded, has been a major venue at the Jazz Festival for decades. The casino is immortalized in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water,” which recounts a 1971 Frank Zappa concert where an over-enthusiastic fan set the building afire with a flare gun: “Smoke on the water, fire in the sky.”)

In the album liner notes, producer Joel Dorn recalled listening to the festival tapes when he got back in his studio. “The door to the room was open, and within ten minutes the room was filled with people who got sucked in by the music—secretaries, mail-room guys, all kinds of people. Everybody was dancing. It was nuts. It’s the live album you dream about making, but it happens very rarely. But it happened that night. It was the luckiest record of my career.” Hennesey added, “It had all the makings of a musical disaster of epic proportions—yet it turned out to be one of the most stimulating and serendipitous live jazz performances ever captured on record.”

Leroy Vinnegar will be remembered as a swinging walking bassist with an extra feather in his cap for his Swiss Movement performance. Now, check out the YouTube video of “Compared to What.” I guarantee you’ll be dancing soon.



Check out John playing with Eddie Harris [The Last Concert, ACT, 1997], and visit him on the web at for sound samples, videos, and answers to all of your bassrelated questions.


Les McCann and Eddie Harris Swiss Movement [Atlantic, 1969]

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